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Year : 2022  |  Volume : 3  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 63-66

COVID-19-associated rhino-mucormycosis and pulmonary aspergillosis infection

1 Department of Interventional Radiology, Shanti Mukand Hospital, New Delhi, India
2 Department of College of Nursing, ILBS, New Delhi, India

Correspondence Address:
Jitender Singh
Department of Interventional Radiology, Shanti Mukand Hospital, New Delhi
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/jssrp.jssrp_6_22

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In the current pandemic, the incidence of fungal infections-associated COVID-19 is surging. Diabetes mellitus, overzealous steroid, and antibiotic use for COVID-19 management may cause or exacerbate the fungal disease. In paranasal sinus (PNS), ethmoids followed by the maxillary sinus are commonly involved with the risk of intra-orbital or/and intracranial involvement is quite common. In lungs, COVID-19 infection has higher mortality rate, if there is an associated fungal infection. Aspergillus fumigates is the most common fungus that cause lung infection and present as discrete lesion different from COVID-19 manifestation. Two cases of COVID-associated fungal infections, i.e., rhino-mucormycosis and pulmonary aspergillosis are described here. In the first case, computed tomography (CT) of PNS was done for the complaints of mild right-sided facial swelling and mild restriction of the eye globe on day 27 of illness. CT showed hyperdense content involving the right-sided nasal sinus with the remodeling of bones with erosion and thinning of the inferior and medial orbital wall with the extension of soft tissue into the extraorbital space. The patient was treated with Amphotericin B and posaconazole oral suspension as the first-line antifungal monotherapy. In the second case, on complaints of cough with expectoration on the 20th day of illness, X-ray chest and CT chest were done which confirmed a thick-walled cavity in the right lung and other post COVID features. The tracheal aspirate culture was suggestive of Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus antigen galactomannan was found positive in the fluid. The patient was treated for the same with antifungal therapy. Hence it is important to pay attention to the high probability of fungal infections in COVID-19 patients. The association of coronavirus with mucormycosis of the PNSs and aspergillosis of the lung must be given outmost consideration. Noncontrast CT of the PNSs is usually the first investigation of choice for PNS involvement, and CT chest help in the diagnosis of pulmonary fungal infection. Uncontrolled diabetes and use of steroids are two of the main factors for aggravating factors. Both early surgical intervention and anti-fungal treatment should be sought for the management.

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